Latest Updates: Related to Inflation
Research and Resources

Future of Work

Future of Work

The resources below provide additional insight into this important topic.

"We expect work-from-home and hybrid-work will continue to impact the public finance landscape. In some places, the impacts will shift economic activity, and lower sales and income taxes, making some sectors that are more dependent on those revenue streams more susceptible to potential financial strain. This is a once-in-a-generation shift that will likely play out more quickly and in select locations versus others, but will play out whether or not leaders acknowledge or like the trend."

Tom Kozlik, Head of Municipal Research and Analytics

Research and Resources


Bloomberg: NYC Offices to See $50 Billion in Value Wiped Out, Study Says, Lizzie Kane, October 3, 2022 (Note: See related NBER study linked below under Academic Reports.)

San Francisco Standard: SF Bay Area Reigns as Nation’s Work-From-Home Capital, Census Data Shows, Noah Baustin, September 14, 2022

Chattanooga Times Free Press: Chattanooga’s major office employers decide remote work is here to stay, Dave Flessner, September 9, 2022 Turning Downtown Residential: Why It’s Poised to Happen, Alan Ehrenhalt, August 29, 2022

Wall Street Journal: Pension Funds Are Selling Their Office Buildings, Heather Gillers, August 25, 2022

The Washington Post: The Remote Work Revolution is Already Reshaping America, Andrew Van Dam, August 19, 2022

Bloomberg: US Cities Stung by Great Resignation Hike Wages, Romy Varghese, June 29, 2022

Wall Street Journal: Connecticut Makes Remote Work Permanent for State Employees, Bruising Hartford’s Economy, March 17, 2022 Remote Jobs Are Good for Workers, but Not for City Budgets, February 28, 2022

PEW: Increased Availability of Remote Work Could Hurt Some Cities’ Revenues, February 22, 2022

Merritt Research Services: Tracking Municipalities’ Reliance on Top Taxpayers – Exploring Commercial Real Estate Positions in 33 Major U.S. Cities, Rich Ciccarone, February 10, 2022

2021 What Will Working for State and Local Gov. Be Like in 2022?, December 13, 2021

American City and County: The new normal: How state and local governments can benefit from virtual desktop-as-a-service to support remote workforce, November 23, 2021

JDSupra: Does Your State Require Employers to Foot the Bill for Employees’ Remote Work Expenses? | Baker Donelson, March 17, 2021


SSRN: How Do Cities Change When We Work from Home?, December 14, 2020

ICMA: After COVID-19: Is There a Place for Telework in Local Government?, May 14, 2020


SWAA August 2022 Updates, Jose Maria Barrero, Nicholas Bloom, and Steven J. Davis, August 26, 2022

Special Briefing on Vulnerable Cities Facing Work from Home Realities, Nicholas Bloom and Stijn Van Nieuwerburgh, July 21, 2022

NBER: Why Working from Home Will Stick, Jose Maria Barrero, Nicholas Bloom, and Steven J. Davis, February 15, 2022


Let me work from home, or I will find another job, Jose Maria Barrero, Nicholas Bloom, and Steven J. Davis, July 18, 2021

Hybrid is the Future of Work, Nicholas Bloom, June 2021

VOXEU: Returning to the Office Will be Hard, Nicholas Bloom, Paul Mizen, Shivani Taneja, June 15, 2021


How working from home works out, Nicholas Bloom, June 2020

The bright future of working from home, Nicholas Bloom, May 2020



The Wall Street Journal: The Return to the Office Has Stalled, Peter Grant, May 16, 2023

The Wall Street Journal: The Decline of the Five-Day Commute Is a Boon to Suburban Retail, Kate King, May 9, 2023

The Wall Street Journal: Work-From-Home Era Ends for Millions of Americans, Gwynn Guilford, March 25, 2023

Tracking the San Francisco Bay Area’s Pandemic Recovery, Bay Area Council Economic Institute, March 2023

Partnership for New York City: Return to Office Survey Results, February 2023

The Wall Street Journal: For Remote Workers, These U.S. Cities Are Great Places to Live, Ray A. Smith, Tom Corrigan, and Jason French, February 13, 2023

Bloomberg: Remote Work Is Costing Manhattan More Than $12 Billion a Year, Emma Court and Donna Borak, February 12, 2023

Twin Cities Business: Remote Work Bubble Begins To Pop, Liz Fedor, January 31, 2023

The Wall Street Journal: The Job Market for Remote Workers Is Shrinking, Ray A. Smith, January 24, 2023

Axios: Remote work saved workers 72 minutes per day, study finds, Emily Peck, January 24, 2023

The Economist: How Technology Is Redrawing the Boundaries of the Firm, January 8, 2023


Hubble Official List of Every Company’s Back-to-Office Strategy, August 22, 2022

Hybrid Work: Making it fit with your diversity, equity, and inclusion strategy, McKinsey Quarterly, April 20, 2022

EIG: How Remote Work is Shifting Population Growth Across the U.S., Adam Ozimek, April 13, 2022


Bet on It: 37% of Desks Will Be Empty, Gallup, December 7, 2021

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